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Transparency International Plain Language Guide to Anti-Corruption Terms TI hasdeveloped a plain language guide to capture the key terms for the movement’s stakeholders in government, the private sector and civil society

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Foreword

While the world is not free from corruption, it is a very different place than when Transparency International began its work more than 15 years ago. There has been a marked increase in the understanding of corruption’s ills and the need to prevent, mitigate and combat it. Yet the financial and economic crisis in 2008 has served as a reminder of what can happen when transparency,accountability and anti-corruption become afterthoughts rather than the guide for one’s actions

Having a common understanding and language for the anti-corruption movement is one channel for ensuring that such breakdowns and abuses are prevented in the future. It is in this spirit that TI hasdeveloped a plain language guide to capture the key terms for the movement’s stakeholders in government, the private sector and civil society

 

Acknowledgements

TI would like to thank all the national chapters, members and partners that have helped make this guide a reality. With what began as an insipient idea among TI members, the guide has progressed quickly from its beginning as a small meeting prior to the International anti-Corruption Conference

(IACC) in Athens, Greece in October 2008. This early morning session gained tremendously from the contributions of Farzana Nawaz, Finn Heinrich, Christian Humborg, Pierre Landell Mills, Georg Neumann, Juanita Riaño, Bruno Speck, Codru Vrabi and Peter Wilkinson. It has helped to set the tone

of all the work that has followed.

TI would particularly like to thank Amaya Gorostiaga, who has translated the original vision for the guide into such an excellent text.

Throughout this process, the work of TI’s national chapters has been critical. TI would like to recognise the contributions of chapters in Bangladesh, Kenya, Lebanon, Romania, South Korea and Zambia that helped to pilot the guide with key stakeholders from the government, parliament, private sector, civil

society and media.

Introduction

Corruption and its effects are a global dilemma. From small bribes paid to police officers in

Bangladesh to the holding of stolen assets by Swiss banks, the impacts from these abuses on states

and citizens are the same: the undermining of the rule of law, the violation of rights, opaque

institutions, lost public resources, and weakened national integrity.

To effectively address these problems, anti-corruption solutions need to be pursued through

coordinated and deliberate action by international, national and local partners that use the same

language and agree on its meaning.

In response, TI has developed the first “Plain Language Guide to Anticorruption Terms”. The Plain

Language Guide offers a set of standardised, easy-to-understand definitions, providing readers with

concrete examples in practice. Relevant links are also provided for further background information or

research.

The aim of the guide is to provide clarity on the terms that the anti-corruption movement uses most in

its daily work as well as those associated with new and emerging issues. The terms in this guide have

been selected given their wide use in diverse forums and across the public and private sectors. Each

term is intended to stimulate a dialogue — within academia, the business community, among NGOs

and in international development circles — on how to address corruption.

The experiences of TI chapters in over 90 countries have formed the basis for this guide and the terms

selected. The guide is the result of the collaborative efforts of a number of Transparency International

chapters across different regions. It reflects the extensive consultations that they held with local

stakeholders to devise a short list of terms and definitions that can be understood across different

cultures, languages and contexts.

Many of these terms are in continual evolution as the anti-corruption movement works to better

understand what is ‘governance’, ‘civil society’ or even ‘corruption’.

The guide serves as a platform for continuing this discussion as the movement evolves, grows and

continues to learn. It is a living document that will be debated, expanded and updated.

We look forward to your continued help in this process.

List of Terms
1. Access to Information
2. Accountability
3. Asset Recovery
4. Audit
5. Bribery
6. Civil Society
7. Clientelism
8. Code of Conduct
9. Collusion
10. Compliance
11. Conflict of Interests
12. Conventions
13. Corporate Governance
14. Corruption
15. Debarment
16. Disclosure
17. Embezzlement
18. Ethics
19. Extortion
20. Facilitation Payments
21. Fraud
22. Governance
23. Grand Corruption
24. Integrity
25. Lobbying
26. Money Laundering
27. National Integrity Systems
28. Nepotism
29. Offshore Financial Centres
30. Oversight
31. Pacts
32. Patronage
33. Petty Corruption
34. Political Contribution
35. Political Corruption
36. Political Will
37. Private Sector
38. Procurement
39. Public Sector
40. Revolving Door
41. Rule of Law
42. Solicitation
43. State Capture
44. Transparency
45. Whistle blowing

 

Terms
1. Access to information
Definition
The right by law — often through freedom of information acts or laws — to access key public facts and
data from the government and any public body. Budgets, project approvals and evaluations are
typically published although citizens can petition for more.1
Example in practice
Canada’s Access to Information Act allows citizens to request online any public record from a federal
body,2 with the exception of documents considered threatening to the security, economic, domestic, or
international affairs of the country.
Relevant links
—— Article 19 Global Campaign for Free Expression.
http://www.article19.org/work/index.html
—— The CarterCenter: Access to Information.
http://www.cartercenter.org/peace/americas/information.html
—— International Budget Partnership.
http://www.internationalbudget.org/
——UN Anti—Corruption Toolkit, Tool #19 Access to Information, p. 301.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— UNDP Practical Guidance Note on the Right to Information.
http://www.undp.org/governance/docs/A2I_Guides_RighttoInformation.pdf
2. Accountability
Definition
The concept that individuals and agencies, whether operating in the public or private sector, are held
responsible for executing their powers properly. In democracies, it is characterized as the relationship
between a leader and the persons s/he is accountable to.3
1 U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2002 – Deeping Democracy in a Fragmented World
(New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 2002)
T. Mendel, ‘Corruption, access to information and human development’, in: United Nations Development Programme, Tackling
Corruption, Transforming Lives: Selected Background Papers for Asia-Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2009).
The CarterCenter: Access to Information http://www.cartercenter.org/peace/americas/information.html
2 Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Access to Information Request Form http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/tbsf-fsct/350-57-eng.asp
3 National Endowment for Democracy, Institutionalizing Horizontal Accountability: how democracies can fight corruption and the
abuse of power http://www.ned.org/forum/reports/accountability/report.html
NOLAN 2008, Latin American Futures http://www.nolan2008.uib.no/workshops/workshop8/index.html
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
M. O’Brien and R. Pelizzo, ‘Accountability in Governance’
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PUBLICSECTORANDGOVERNANCE/Resources/AccountabilityGovernance.pdf
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2002 – Deeping Democracy in a Fragmented World
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf
In theory, there are three forms of accountability: diagonal, horizontal and vertical.
? Diagonal accountability is when citizens use government institutions to elicit better oversight of
the state’s actions, and in the process engage in policy-making, budgeting, expenditure
tracking and other activities.
? Horizontal accountability subjects public officials to restraint and oversight, or ‘checks and
balances’ by other government agencies (i.e. courts, ombudsman, auditing agencies, central
banks) that can call into question, and eventually punish, an official for improper conduct.
? Vertical accountability holds a public official accountable to the electorate or citizenry through
elections, a free press, an active civil society and other similar channels.
Example in practice
In Costa Rica, the existence of three branches of government, as well as two autonomous state
authorities with equivalent responsibilities (electoral and auditory branches), has created horizontal
accountability and allowed for a separation of powers among state agencies, which are constitutionally
empowered to take action against one another when required.
Relevant links
—— AccountAbility.
http://www.accountability21.net/
—— National Endowment for Democracy, Institutionalizing Horizontal Accountability.
http://www.ned.org/forum/reports/accountability/report.html.
3. Asset Recovery
Definition
The right of a government and its citizens to recover state resources stolen through corruption by past
regimes, their families and political allies, or foreign actors.4
Example in practice
In 2004, US$ 624 million was transferred to the Philippine Treasury from Swiss bank accounts to
repatriate funds stolen by former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, who allegedly embezzled
between US$ 5 - 10 billion during his presidency. 5
Relevant links
—— The Camden Assets Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN).
http://www.europol.europa.eu/publications/Camden_Assets_Recovery_Inter—
Agency_Network/CARIN_Europol.pdf
—— International Centre for Asset Recovery, Basel Institute on Governance.
http://www.baselgovernance.org/icar/
—— UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, Ch. 10 ‘Recovery and Return of Proceeds of Corruption’.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— UNODC: Open-ended International Working Group on Asset Recovery.
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/working-group2.html
—— World Bank: Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Star-rep-full.pdf
4. Audit
4 Basel Institute on Governance, Glossary http://www.assetrecovery.org/kc/node/786c5ae2-5c7c-11dd-8c6a-
7bd68e2d933e.html
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Convention Against Corruption http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/index.html
5 Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Star-rep-full.pdf
Definition
An internal or external examination of an organization’s accounts, processes, functions and
performance to produce an independent and credible assessment of their compliance with applicable
laws and regulations. Communities can conduct a ‘social audit’ of basic service delivery.6
Example in practice
Indonesia’s Supreme Audit Agency found US$ 40 million missing from post-Tsunami emergency funds
and massive irregularities, including that the bulk of materials bought went unused and many
purchases were made long after the emergency period was over.7
Relevant links
—— INTOSAI (International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions).
http://www.intosai.org/en/portal/
—— ISSAI (International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions).
http://www.issai.org/composite-347.htm
—— PEFA (Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability).
http://www.pefa.org/
—— UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, Tool #5 Auditors and audit institutions, p. 100.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— World Bank: Features and Functions of Supreme Audit Institutions.
http://www.worldbank.org/afr/findings/english/find208.pdf
5. Bribery
Definition
The offering, promising, giving, accepting or soliciting of an advantage as an inducement for an action
which is illegal or a breach of trust. Inducements can take the form of gifts, loans, fees, rewards or
other advantages (taxes, services, donations, etc.).8
Example in practice
More than 15 percent of respondents to a national household survey in Guatemala said they have
paid a bribe when trying to (re)connect to the public water system.9 In Bangladesh, 64,5 percent of
respondents to a national household survey said they have paid a bribe when interacting with law
enforcement agencies. Bribery across all agencies is estimated to reduce Bangladesh’s national
income by 3.84 percent.10
Relevant links
—— OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
http://www.oecd.org/department/0,3355,en_2649_34859_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
6 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Features and Functions of Supreme Audit Institutions
http://www.worldbank.org/afr/findings/english/find208.pdf
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004)
7 Michael Renner, ‘Indonesia's Supreme Audit Agency Finds Massive Irregularities in the Use of Post-Tsunami Emergency
Funds’, Worldwatch Institute. 5 July 2006. (www.worldwatch.org/node/4196).
8 U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Wikipedia: bribery http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bribery
The Lebanese Transparency Association (LTA), ‘Youth against Corruption’, (Lebanon, 2005).
Black’s Law Dictionary http://www.blackslawdictionary.com/
9 Transparency International, Global Corruption Report 2008 – Corruption in the Water Sector (Berlin: Transparency
International, 2008).
10 TI Bangladesh, National Household Survey on Corruption in Bangladesh (Dhaka : TI Bangladesh, 2007). www.tibangladesh.
org.
—— OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business
Transactions.
http://www.oecd.org/document/21/0,3343,en_2649_34859_2017813_1_1_1_1,00.html
——Transparency International Bribe Payers Index.
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/bpi
——Transparency International’s Business Principles for Countering Bribery.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/private_sector/business_principles
6. Civil Society
Definition
The arena, outside of the family, state and market where people associate to advance a common set
of interests. Voluntary and community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions
and faith-based organisations commonly are included in this sphere.11
Example in practice
An assessment of Mali’s civil society has shown that at the grassroots level, there are numerous
parent’s associations, community committees on health, women’s associations and other groups that
have come together to advocate for their members’ interests vis-à-vis the government’s provision of
services. National-level groups, such as those representing journalists, also have formed, including to
pressure the government to better and more systematically address corruption and poverty.12
Relevant links
—— Civicus:
www.civicus.org
—— BBC World Service: Civil Society: The ultimate Third Way.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1999/02/99/e—cyclopedia/1156120.stm,
—— European Commission: Justice and Home Affairs – Freedom, Security and Justice Glossary.
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/glossary/glossary_c_en.htm.
—— London School of Economics: Centre for Civil Society.
http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htm.
—— UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service.
www.un—ngls.org.
—— World Bank: Civil Society.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/CSO/0,,pagePK:220469~theSitePK:228717,0
0.html.
7. Clientelism
Definition
An unequal system of exchanging resources and favours based on an exploitative relationship
between a wealthier and/or more powerful ‘patron’ and a less wealthy and weaker ‘client’.13
11 See: F. Heinrich. “Assessing and Strengthening Civil Society Worldwide”, CIVICUS Civil Society Index Paper Series. Volume
2, Issue. (Johannesburg, South Africa: CIVICUS, 2004). http://www.civicus.org/new/media/CSI_Heinrich_paper.pdf.
12 Abdou Togola and Dan Gerber. “An Evaluation of Malian Civil Society’s Role in Governance”. Open Society Institute Africa
Governance Monitoring & Advocacy Project. (OSI, March 2007).
http://www.afrimap.org/english/images/paper/Mali_Civil_Society(fin).pdf.
13 P. Keefer, ‘Clientelism, Credibility, and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies’, World Bank Group, 2005.
http://www.qog.pol.gu.se/conferences/november2005/papers/Keefer.pdf
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf.
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
Example in practice
In Mexico, caciques or local power brokers provide peasants with plots of land, loans, security, and a
medium through which to sell their crops in exchange for the peasants’ votes, often using strong-arm
tactics to reinforce their power.
Relevant links
—— USAID: Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance - An Overview and Framework
for Assessment and Programming.
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf
—— World Bank: Policy Research Paper, Democracy, Credibility and Clientelism.
http://www-
0wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2005/02/02/000009486_200502021
65259/Rendered/PDF/wps3472.pdf
8. Code of Conduct
Definition
A statement of principles and values that establishes a set of expectations and standards for how an
organization, government body, company or affiliated group will behave, including minimal levels of
compliance and disciplinary actions.14
Example in practice
The federal government of Nigeria has adopted a ‘Code of Conduct for Ministers and Special Advisers’
engaged in government business dealings to ensure that the actions and behaviour of public officers
conform to the highest standards of public morality and accountability.15
Relevant links
—— EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports.
http://www.consilium.eu.int/uedocs/cmsUpload/08675r2en8.pdf
—— UN International Code of Conduct for Public Officials.
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/51/a51r059.htm
—— World Bank: Fighting Judicial Integrity – Examples of Judicial Codes of Conduct.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTINST/0,,contentMDK:20756643
~menuPK:2036129~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:1974062,00.html
9. Collusion
Definition
A secret agreement between parties, in the public and/or private sector, to conspire to commit actions
aimed to deceive or commit fraud.16
Example in practice
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
14 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd
edition (Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf
15 Federal Republic of Nigeria: Code of Conduct for Judicial Officers http://www.nigerialaw.
org/CodeOfConductForJudicialOfficers.htm.
16 Independent Commission against Corruption. New South Wales government.
http://www.icac.nsw.gov.au/index.cfm?objectid=3408D1E0-CA0C-775C-3BF191F69571B807.
Economist. http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?term=cartel#carte.
The Ghanaian government has been accused of colluding with logging companies to allow them to
operate without the proper licensing and certification standards, resulting in civil society estimates that
only 5 of the 600 logging concessions in the country are legal.17
Relevant links
—— European Investment Bank.
http://www.eib.org/attachments/strategies/anti_fraud_policy_20080408_en.pdf.
—— OECD: Glossary of Statistical Terms.
http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3159.
—— US Department of Justice.
http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/guidelines/211578.htm.
10. Compliance
Definition
Refers to the procedures, systems or departments within public agencies or companies that ensure all
legal, operational and financial activities are in conformity with current laws, rules, norms, regulations
and standards. 18
Example in practice
In Bhutan, those who are found guilty of failing to comply with the Anti-Corruption Act of 2006, which
requires public servants to accurately declare their assets and liabilities, are held liable under the
country’s penal code.19
Relevant links
—— Compliance Week.
http://www.complianceweek.com/
—— Ernst & Young: Corruption or Compliance, Weighing the Costs, 10th Global Fraud Survey.
http://www.ey.com/Global/assets.nsf/International/FIDS_Corruption_or_compliance_weighing_the_cos
ts/$file/Corruption_or_compliance_weighing_the_costs.pdf
—— GTZ: A Comparison of Compliance Reviews Based on the UN Convention against Corruption.
http://www.igac.net/pdf/publications_gtz_compliance.pdf
—— Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2008.
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi
11. Conflict of Interest
Definition
Situation where an individual, whether working for a government or corporation, is confronted with
choosing between the duties and demands of her position and her own private interests. 20
Example in practice
The Law on Conflict of Interest in Bosnia-Herzegovina restricts elected officials, executives and
advisors in government institutions from certain activities if they result in private or material gain.
17 Ghana: State Collusion Breeds Corruption in Timber Sector. http://www.illegallogging.
info/item_single.php?item=news&item_id=2722&approach_id=1.
18 WikiAnswers, What Does Compliance Mean? http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_compliance_mean
19 Anti Corruption Act of Bhutan 2006 http://www.asianlii.org/bt/legis/laws/aaob2006279/.
20 Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004). U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/
These include acts related to the promising of employment, granting of privileges based on party
affiliation, giving of gifts, and provision of privileged information on state activities. 21
Relevant links
—— Center for Responsive Politics.
http://www.opensecrets.org/
—— Conflicts of Interest Board of the City of New York.
http://www.nyc.gov/html/conflicts/html/home/home.shtml
—— CorpWatch
http://www.corpwatch.org/
—— OECD Guidelines for Managing Conflicts of Interest in the Public Service.
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/35/39691164.pdf
—— United Nations Anti-Corruption Toolkit.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
12. Conventions
Definition
International and regional agreements signed or formally adopted through ratification by multiple
states that establish rules and standards on issues which are typically cross-border in nature and
require a common approach for effective, multilateral cooperation.22
Example in practice
With 140 government signatories, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is the
first international anti-corruption instrument that legally binds acceding and ratifying countries to
implement far-reaching reforms and establishes a common stance for efforts to combat corruption.
Other multi-lateral conventions on corruption include the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, the African
Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and the Inter-American Convention on
Corruption.
Relevant links
—— Interpol: Conventions Regarding Anti-Corruption.
http://www.interpol.int/Public/Corruption/Conventions/default.asp
—— Transparency International, Anti-corruption conventions and other international instruments.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/international_conventions
—— U4: Anti-Corruption Conventions – An Overview.
http://www.u4.no/themes/conventions/intro.cfm
—— UK Anti-Corruption Forum.
http://www.anticorruptionforum.org.uk/acf/fs/resources/instruments/
13. Corporate Governance
Definition
Procedures and processes for how private sector organisations are directed, managed and controlled,
including the relationships between, responsibilities of and legitimate expectations among different
stakeholders (Board of Directors, management, shareholders, and other interested groups).23
21 Transparency International Bosnia-Herzegovina http://tibih.blhost.net/abut-us/faq/en/
22 Transparency International, Conventions http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/international_conventions
United Nations Treaty Reference Guide http://untreaty.un.org/english/guide.asp#agreements
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Example in practice
The Board of Directors of General Electric (GE) oversees how management serves the interests of
shareowners and other stakeholders on a variety of issues of corporate governance. In the past, the
Board has received briefings on the company’s controllership, compliance and litigation trends and
environmental risk management.
Relevant links
—— European Corporate Governance Institute.
http://www.ecgi.org/
—— Global Compact: Business against Corruption.
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/7.7/BACbookFINAL.pdf
—— Global Corporate Governance Forum.
http://www.gcgf.org/
—— International Corporate Governance Network.
http://www.icgn.org/
—— OECD Principles of Corporate Governance.
http://www.oecd.org/DATAOECD/32/18/31557724.pdf
14. Corruption
Definition
The abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Corruption can be classified as grand, petty and
political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs. Also see ‘grand
corruption’, ‘petty corruption’ and ‘political corruption’.24
Example in practice
According to a national survey in India, high levels of corruption have left more than 70 percent of
families living below the poverty line having to pay a bribe to law enforcement and local housing
authorities.25
Relevant links
—— Asian Development Bank.
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/Anticorruption/anticorrupt300.asp?p=policies
—— OECD: Corruption: Glossary of International Criminal Standards.
http://www.oecd.org/document/2/0,3343,en_2649_34857_40460290_1_1_1_1,00.html
—— Transparency International.
www.transparency.org/about_us
—— World Bank.
http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/anticorrupt/corruptn/cor02.htm
15. Debarment
Definition
23 Institute of Chartered Accountants, Corporate Governance
http://www.icaew.com/index.cfm/route/127640/icaew_ga/en/Technical_amp_Business_Topics/Topics/Corporate_governance/C
orporate_governance
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/.
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_governance.
24 Transparency International. http://www.transparency.org/about_us.
25 Transparency International. India. TII-CMS Corruption Study 2007. With Focus on BPL Households. National Report. (New
Delhi, India: TII and CMS, June 2008). http://www.transparencyindia.org/ICS_national_report_2007.pdf.
Procedure where companies and individuals are excluded from participating in or tendering projects.
Governments and multilateral agencies use this process to publicly punish businesses, NGOs,
countries or individuals found guilty of unethical or unlawful behaviour.26
Example in practice
The World Bank debarred Lahmeyer International, a German company, and Acres International, a
Canadian-based firm, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The decision was taken after a Lesotho court
found the companies guilty of bribing officials to win contracts for a multi-billion dollar water supply
scheme, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project. Lahmeyer has been suspended for seven years from
doing business with the Bank while Acres has been made ineligible for three years.
Relevant links
—— TI Recommendations for EU Debarment System.
www.transparency.org/content/download/5661/32802/file/TI_EU_
Debarment_Recommendations_06—03—28.pdf
—— U4: Debarment as an Anti-Corruption Means.
http://www.u4.no/themes/debarment/main.cfm
—— UK Anti-Corruption Forum: Fair and Efficient Debarment Procedures.
http://www.anticorruptionforum.org.uk/acf/fs/groups/fair_efficient.pdf
—— World Bank: Listing of Ineligible Firms.
www.worldbank.org/debarr
—— World Bank Sanctions Committee: Report Concerning the Debarment Processes of the World
Bank.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/PROCUREMENT/0,,contentMDK:5000228
8~pagePK:84271~piPK:84287~theSitePK:84266,00.html
16. Disclosure
Definition
Provision of information as required under law or in good faith, regarding activities of a private
individual, public official or company. Information can include a political candidate’s assets, a
company’s financial reports or a whistleblower’s accusations.27
Example in practice
Following a lobbyist scandal in the US, a total of 51 corporations — including America Express,
Chevron, General Electric and Merck — agreed to adopt new rules that voluntary bind companies to
disclose publicly any corporate funds that are used for political purposes, either at the state or federal
level.28
Relevant links
—— Bank of Canada: Disclosure of Wrongdoing.
http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/about/pdf/wrongdoing.pdf
—— International Chamber of Commerce: Commission on Anti-Corruption. Combating Extortion and
Bribery: ICC Rules of Conduct and Recommendations.
26 U4, Debarment as an Anti-Corruption Means http://www.u4.no/themes/debarment/main.cfm.
D. Thornburgh, R. Gainer, C. Walker, Report Concerning the Debarment Processes of the World Bank, 2002
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROCUREMENT/Resources/thornburghreport.pdf.
UK Anti-Corruption Forum: Fair and Efficient Debarment Procedures
http://www.anticorruptionforum.org.uk/acf/fs/groups/fair_efficient.pdf.
27 Centre for Political Accountability. http://www.politicalaccountability.net/.
Deutsche Bank. Banking and Stock Glossary. http://www.db.com/lexikon/lexikon_de/content/index_e_1163.htm.
Finance Glossary. http://www.finance-glossary.com/define/disclosure/416/0/D
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat – Backgrounder: Glossary – Proposed Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act.
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/nou/20041008glossary-eng.asp.
28Leslie Wayne, “Corporations to Disclose Political Contributions”. Washington Post. 29 May 2008.
http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/29/corporations-to-disclose-political-contributions/.
http://www.iccwbo.org/uploadedFiles/ICC/policy/anticorruption/Statements/ICC_Rules_of_Conduct_an
d_Recommendations%20_2005%20Revision.pdf.
—— International Finance Corporation: Disclosure Policy.
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/disclosure.nsf/Content/Disclosure_Policy.
—— Shell: Financial Disclosure Policy.
http://www.shell.com/home/content/om—
en/about_shell/our_performance/financial_disclosure/financial_disclosure_1512.html.
—— U4 Helpdesk Query: Corruption Political Party Financing and Electoral Campaigns.
http://www.u4.no/helpdesk/helpdesk/queries/query8.cfm.
—— World Bank: Disclosure Glossary.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/INFORMATIONDISCLOSURE/0,,menuPK
:199023~pagePK:213743~piPK:213746~theSitePK:222993,00.html.
17. Embezzlement
Definition
When a person holding office in an institution, organisation or company dishonestly and illegally
appropriates, uses or traffics the funds and goods they have been entrusted with for personal
enrichment or other activities.29
Example in practice
Chung Mong Koo, former chairman of Hyundai Motors Co. was convicted in 2007 of embezzling US$
110 million from company funds, a portion of which was allegedly used to pay off politicians and
government officials.30
Relevant links
—— TI Global Corruption Report 2004 – Political Corruption.
http://www.transparency.org/publications/gcr/download_gcr/download_gcr_2004
—— U4 Brief: Embezzlement of Donor Funding in Health Projects.
http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/?3031=embezzlement-of-donor-funding-in-health-projects
18. Ethics
Definition:
Based on core values, a set of standards for conduct in government, companies and society that
guide decisions, choices and actions.31
Example in practice
The state minister of Turkey, Hayati Yazici, has argued that previous failures in the country to deal
effectively with and prosecute corruption has tainted the public’s perception of ethics, making it seem
that corrupt individuals benefit from their actions.32
Relevant links
—— Institute of Internal Auditors: Code of Ethics.
29 South East Europe Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative Glossary http://www.rai-see.org/glossary-.html
Australia, New South Wales ICAC Glossary http://www.icac.nsw.gov.au/index.cfm?objectid=3408D1E0-CA0C-775C-
3BF191F69571B807
USAID, TATWEER Anti-Corruption Glossary http://www.tatweer-iraq.com/content/resources/detail/812
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
30 BBC News. “Hyundai’s boss gets three years”. 5 February 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6329173.stm.
31 Ethics Resource Center. http://www.ethics.org/resources/ethics-glossary.asp.
32 “Turkey Demonstrates Impressive Performance in Dealing with Corruption”. Sunday’s Zaman. 1 March 2009.
http://www.sundayszaman.com/sunday/detaylar.do?load=detay&link=168314.
www.theiia.org.
—— Sarbanes-Oxley Act. 2002. Section 406. Code of Ethics.
http://www.sec.gov/news/press/2002—150.htm
—— Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics.
www.corporatecompliance.org/
—— U4 Resource Centre: Corruption and possible cures: Corporate Ethics.
http://www.u4.no/helpdesk/faq/faqs3d.cfm#7.
—— World Bank: Corporate Corporation and Ethics Index.
http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pubs/gcr2004.html
19. Extortion
Definition
Act of utilizing one’s access to a position of power or knowledge, either directly or indirectly, to
demand unmerited cooperation or compensation as a result of coercive threats.33
Example in practice
A member of the Tamil Tigers separatist group was deported from Canada after he used violence and
intimidation to extort money from Sri Lankans living in Canada to support the group’s military
campaign at home, with some victims being forced to mortgage their homes.
Relevant links
—— European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD): Fraud and Corruption Definitions.
http://www.ebrd.com/about/integrity/fraud.htm
—— International Chamber of Commerce: Combating Extortion and Bribery.
http://www.iccwbo.org/uploadedFiles/ICC/policy/anticorruption/Statements/ICC_Rules_of_Conduct_an
d_Recommendations%20_2005%20Revision.pdf
20. Facilitation Payments
Definition
A small bribe, also called a ‘facilitating’, ‘speed’ or ‘grease’ payment; made to secure or expedite the
performance of a routine or necessary action to which the payer has legal or other entitlement.34
Example in practice
Saudi Arabia’s Control and Investigation Board charged eight health officials in 2008 with taking bribes
to facilitate the granting of licenses to open new pharmacies. Investors claimed the licensing
33 J. Andvig, A. Shrivastava, ‘Police Corruption, Corruption and Crime – Data Examples from the Asia Pacific Region, in: United
Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Selected Background Papers for Asia-Pacific (New
Delhi: Macmillan, 2009).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
34 United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
Business Anti-Corruption Portal, Vocabulary http://www.business-anti-corruption.com/normal.asp?pageid=185.
Transparency International Annual Membership Meeting 2007, Resolution on Facilitation Payments
www.transparency.org/content/download/26415/398903.
Global Infrastructure Anti-Corruption Centre http://www.giaccentre.org/what_is_corruption.php.
department purposely delayed the work and forced them to make facilitation payments in order to
advance the approval procedure.35
Relevant links
—— Basel Institute on Governance: Facilitation Payments.
http://www.baselgovernance.org/fileadmin/docs/pdfs/Events/OHADA_Grobety_EN.pdf
—— Ethical Corporation: Facilitation Payments.
http://www.ethicalcorp.com/content.asp?ContentID=4471&rss=43.xml
—— OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials.
http://www.oecd.org/document/20/0,2340,en_2649_34859_2017813_1_1_1_1,00.html
—— TI Bangladesh: National Household Survey on Corruption 2007.
http://www.ti—bangladesh.org/research/HHSurvey07SubstSum180608.pdf
—— United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA).
http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa/
21. Fraud
Definition
The act of intentionally deceiving someone in order to gain an unfair or illegal advantage (financial,
political or otherwise). Countries consider such offences to be criminal or a violation of civil law.36
Example in practice
During the 2004 Ukrainian presidential elections, reports of fraud from election-rigging (e.g. ballot box
stuffing and voter intimidation) led to the annulment of the winning candidate’s victory and a run-off in
which independent monitors declared the opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko the winner.
Relevant links
—— National Democratic Institute: Election Monitoring.
http://www.ndi.org/globalp/elections/programselc/manuals.asp
—— UK Electoral Commission.
http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/
—— UK Serious Fraud Office.
http://www.sfo.gov.uk/
22. Governance
Definition
A concept that goes beyond the traditional notion of government to focus on the relationships between
leaders, public institutions and citizens, including the processes by which they make and implement
decisions. 37
‘Good’ governance is characterised as being participatory, accountable, transparent, efficient,
35 P.K. Ghafour, ‘8 Health Officials Accused of Graft’, Arab News 30 July 2008
http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1&section=0&article=112252&d=30&m=7&y=2008.
36 Global Infrastructure Anti-Corruption Centre http://www.giaccentre.org/what_is_corruption.php
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
37 Global Development Research Centre http://www.gdrc.org/u-gov/work-def.html
UNESCAP, What is Good Governance? http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/gg/governance.asp
Australian Development Gateway http://www.developmentgateway.com.au/jahia/Jahia/pid/192
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/
responsive and inclusive, respecting the rule of law and minimizing opportunities for corruption.
Example in practice
To strengthen Nepal’s governance system, its parliament passed four bills in 2002 aimed at
constructing an anti-corruption legal framework and established a unit under the prime minister’s office
to monitor and advocate for anti-corruption initiatives. The changes also required that all public officials
submit documented statements of their wealth and property.38
Relevant links
—— Freedom House.
http://www.freedomhouse.org
—— Ibrahim Index of African Governance.
http://www.moibrahimfoundation.org/the-index.asp
—— 2008 International Property Rights Index.
http://www.internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/
—— UNESCAP: What is Good Governance?
http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/ProjectActivities/Ongoing/gg/governance.asp
—— World Bank: Governance Matters 2008.
http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.asp
23. Grand Corruption
Definition
Acts committed at a high level of government that distort policies or the central functioning of the state,
enabling leaders to benefit at the expense of the public good. See ‘corruption’, ‘petty corruption’ and
political corruption’.39
Example in practice
In Kenya, the Anglo Leasing scandal, which dates to 2002, is thought to have involved a series of 18
corruption cases in security-related services. Many of the companies that won the contracts were
fictitious or over-billed the government for goods and services that often were non-existent. It is
estimated that approximately US$ 1 billion might have been lost in these deals.
In 1996, two former South Korean presidents, Roh Tae-woo and Chun Doo-hwan, were found guilty in
a corruption case linking them to the chaebols (large family-owned businesses with strong political
ties), which had paid off top political leaders in exchange for unfair business advantages.
Relevant links
—— CIPE: The Costs of Grand Corruption.
http://www.cipe.org/publications/ert/e22/E22_05.pdf
—— U4 Issue: Grand Corruption in the Regulation of Oil.
http://www.cmi.no/publications/publication/?3034=grand-corruption-in-the-regulation-of-oil
—— Water Integrity Network: Lesotho - A Precedent for Prosecution of Grand Corruption Committed
by Multinational Companies.
http://www.waterintegritynetwork.net/content/download/4128/77172/file/5_BestPract_LHWP_Lesotho.
pdf
38 Asian Development Bank, Good Governance Practices http://www.adb.org/Governance/good_gov_anti.asp.
39 United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
24. Integrity
Definition
Behaviours and actions consistent with a set of moral or ethical principles and standards, which serve
as a barrier to corruption and help to create a system of strong institutions, laws and practices. See
ethics’. 40
Example in practice
According to the constitution, the Integrity Commission of Trinidad and Tobago is to ensure that all
public officials comply with relevant national laws. The Commission also is mandated to review the
practices and procedures of public bodies and monitor the receipt of officials’ declarations (income,
assets and liabilities).41
TI-Bangladesh has been successful at substantially improving the quality and integrity of the public
services delivered at the local level after introducing the concept of ‘Islands of Integrity’, communitybased
oversight mechanisms that cover sectors such as health, education and land administration.
Relevant links
—— Global Integrity Report.
http://report.globalintegrity.org/
—— TIRI: Making Integrity Work.
http://www.tiri.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=170&Itemid=118
—— Transparency International: National Integrity System Approach.
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/nis
—— Water Integrity Network.
http://www.waterintegritynetwork.net/
25. Lobbying
Definition
Any activity carried out to influence a government or institution’s policies and decisions in favour of a
specific cause or outcome. Even when allowed by law, these acts can become distortive if
disproportionate levels of influence exist — by companies, associations, organizations and
individuals.42
Example in practice
American lobbying expenses have almost doubled over the last decade, reaching US$ 2.8 billion in
2007 and swelling the ranks of lobbyists to a record 16,000 in 2008. The U.S. pharmaceutical and
health products industry is one of the top lobbying groups whose investments have resulted in
successfully blocking regulated price controls, restricting importation of drugs from countries that cap
drug prices, and influencing industry-friendly policies at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Relevant links
—— Alliance for Lobbying Transparency and Ethics Regulation.
http://www.alter-eu.org/
40 Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
“Sample Glossary NIS Terms” Craig Fagan
41 The Integrity Commission of Trinidad and Tobago http://www.integritycommission.org.tt/.
42 United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Wikipedia, lobbying http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobbying
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
—— Center for Public Integrity: LobbyWatch.
http://www.publicintegrity.org/projects/entry/290/
—— Open Secrets.
http://www.opensecrets.org/lobbyists/
26. Money Laundering
Definition
The process of concealing the origin, ownership or destination of illegally obtained or dishonest money
by hiding it within legitimate economic activities.43
Example in practice
Europe’s largest money laundering operation was discovered in Spain, where an international network
was accused in 2005 of laundering € 250 million through real estate investments in the Costa del Sol.
The money had been illegally obtained from drug trafficking, prostitution rings, international arms
trading, kidnapping, blackmail and tax evasion.
Relevant links
—— The Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering.
http://www.apgml.org/
—— ESAAMLG (Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group.
http://www.esaamlg.org/
—— European Union: Freedom, Security and Justice Section - Money Laundering.
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/crime/laundering/fsj_crime_laundering_en.htm.
—— Financial Action Task Force (FATF).
http://www.fatf—gafi.org/pages/0,3417,en_32250379_32235720_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
—— IMoLIN (International Money Laundering Information Network).
http://www.imolin.org/imolin/index.html
—— Wolfsberg Anti Money Laundering Principles.
http://www.wolfsberg—principles.com/
27. National Integrity Systems
Definition
A holistic approach to analyse both the extent and causes of corruption in a particular country by
looking at the system of checks and balances and institutional pillars that form a society (executive,
legislature, judiciary, comptroller, anti-corruption commission, civil service, media, civil society, etc.). 44
Developed by Transparency International, this framework is useful for evaluating a country’s
institutional strengths and weaknesses and developing an anti-corruption strategy.
Example in practice
The Netherlands’ most recent NIS report reveals that its modern civil service system deters corruption.
The parliamentary system holds government accountable; administrative law guarantees decision-
43 Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (StAR) http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Star-rep-full.pdf
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/.
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
Basel Institute on Governance, Glossary http://www.assetrecovery.org/kc/node/786c5ae2-5c7c-11dd-8c6a-7bd68e2d933e.html.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
44 Transparency International, National Integrity Approach http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/nis.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
making is in the public interest; and a free press works to expose instances of public corruption.
However, the lack of public disclosure and rules for elites, as well as other institutional weaknesses,
demand an independent body be created to protect public integrity and promote related policies.
Relevant links
—— Manila Standard Today: A National Integrity System.
http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=adelleTulagan_aug3_2007
—— TIRI: Mozambique Reconstruction National Integrity System Survey.
http://www.tiri.org/docs/rniss/rniss_mozambique.pdf
—— Transparency International: National Integrity System.
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/nis
28. Nepotism
Definition
Form of favouritism based on acquaintances and familiar relationships whereby someone in an official
position exploits his or her power and authority to provide a job or favour to a family member, even
though he or she may not be qualified or deserving. Also see ‘clientelism’.45
Example in practice
In the European Commission, one of the most sensational cases of corruption involved allegations that
the Commissioner of Research and Education from 1995-1999, Edith Cresson, a former French prime
minister, used nepotism in hiring her dentist to produce reports on AIDS research, although he lacked
any background or qualifications for the position.46
Relevant links
—— Global Security: Afghanistan: Nepotism, Cronyism Widespread in Government
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2003/05/mil-030506-rfel-155449.htm
—— Transparency International: Global Corruption Report 2007
http://www.transparency.org/content/download/18702/255302
—— USA Today: Don’t Let Jobs Grow on Family Trees
http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2003-07-29-turley_x.htm
29. 0ffshore Financial Centres
Definition
Countries or jurisdictions, some times called ‘fiscal paradises’, that provide financial services to nonresidents
on a disproportionate scale to the domestic economy as a result of financial incentives, such
as minimum government interference and very low or zero tax rates.47
Example in practice
Citigroup, an American-based bank and recipient of US$ 45 billion in federal bailout money,48 operates
427 subsidiaries in offshore financial centres such as the Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands and
45 USAID, TATWEER Anti-Corruption Glossary http://www.tatweer-iraq.com/content/resources/detail/812.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
46 See: Kelly Li, “Recommendations for the Curbing of Corruption, Cronyism, Nepotism and Fraud in the European
Commission”, Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, vol, 24: 1 (2000).
http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/lwsch/journals/bciclr/24_1/05_FMS.htm.
47 A. Zorome, ‘Concept of Off-Shore Financial Centres: In Search of an Operational Definition’ (IMF Working Paper: 2007)
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2007/wp0787.pdf.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Basel Institute on Governance, Glossary http://www.assetrecovery.org/kc/node/786c5ae2-5c7c-11dd-8c6a-7bd68e2d933e.html.
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary.
Switzerland — countries which have been documented as offering incentives to evade or defer tax
bills.49
Relevant links
—— IMF: Background Paper Offshore Financial Centres.
http://www.imf.org/external/np/mae/oshore/2000/eng/back.htm
—— Offshore Watch: Association for Accountancy and Business Affairs.
http://visar.csustan.edu/aaba/jerseypage.html
——Tax Justice Network.
http://www.taxjustice.net/cms/front_content.php?idcat=2
—— World Bank: Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Star-rep-full.pdf
30. Oversight
Definition
The process of independently monitoring and investigating — internally or externally — the operations
and activities of a government agency, company or civil society organization to ensure accountability
and efficient use of resources. In parliamentary systems of government, standing committees provide
this function.50
Example in practice
Timor Leste’s independent oversight mechanism, the Office of the Provedor de Direitos Humanos e
Justiça, operates outside the government, reports to parliament and is responsible for investigating
government and citizen complaints against state agencies or private contractors, who manage or
operate public goods and services.
Relevant links
—— European Partners against Corruption.
http://www.epac.at/favicon.ico
—— Project on Government Oversight.
http://www.pogo.org
31. Pacts
Definition
Voluntary agreement among different parties (i.e. businesses, government agencies, contract bidders)
to formally commit to mutually-agreed ‘rules of the game’, including the refusal to engage in bribery
and the promise to uphold human rights.51
Example in practice
In Pakistan, an Integrity Pact on Public Procurement Procedures has been signed as part of the
Greater Karachi Water Supply Scheme, representing a binding commitment by the local water
48 Edmund L. Andrews and Eric Dash, “Banks in Need of Even More Bailout Money”. New York Times. 13 January, 2009.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/14/business/economy/14fed.html..
49 Lynnley Browning, “U.S. Subsidiaries in Offshore Tax Havens”. New York Times. 16 January 16 2009.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/17/business/17tax.html
50 World Bank, Putting in Place Independent Oversight and Audit
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTTIMORLESTE/Resources/Strengthening-Institutions-Audit-6.pdf.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
51 Transparency International, Integrity Pacts http://www.transparency.org/tools/contracting.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
authority and bidders to not engage in bribery or collude with other bidders, to disclose all payments,
and to report any violations by signatories.
Relevant links
—— Transparency International: Integrity Pacts.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/public_contracting/integrity_pacts
—— UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit: Integrity Pacts, Tool #16, p. 270.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— United Nations Global Compact.
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/
—— World Bank Institute: Business Fighting Corruption.
http://info.worldbank.org/etools/antic/index.asp
32. Patronage
Definition
Form of favouritism in which a person is selected, regardless of qualifications or entitlement, for a job
or government benefit because of political affiliations or connections.52
Example in practice
In Kenya, harambee — voluntary contributions to community development projects — has become a
tool for patronage used by politicians to garner votes, maintain the loyalty of their electorate, and
solidify and shape political leadership at the local level.53
Relevant links
—— CMI: Autonomy, incentives and patronage: A Study of Corruption in the Tanzania and Uganda
Revenue Authorities.
http://www.cmi.no/publications/publication/?1688=autonomy—incentives—and—patronage
—— U4: What is Political Corruption?
http://www.u4.no/themes/political—corruption/introduction.cfm
33. Petty Corruption
Definition
Everyday abuse of entrusted power by low- and mid-level public officials in their interactions with
ordinary citizens, who often are trying to access basic goods or services in places like hospitals,
schools, police departments and other agencies.54 See ‘corruption’ and ‘grand corruption’.
Example in practice
In Bangladesh, a study revealed that 44 percent of those surveyed had been a victim of petty
corruption in public health centres, while 39 percent had suffered similar problems in dealing with the
public education system.55
52 USAID, TATWEER Anti-Corruption Glossary http://www.tatweer-iraq.com/content/resources/detail/812.
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf
53 Anne Waiguru, ‘Corruption and Patronage Politics: The Case of ‘Harambee’ in Africa’.
http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/Document.1417.pdf.
54 Global Integrity, UNDP Oslo Governance Centre, ‘A User’s Guide to Measuring Integrity’ (Oslo: 2008).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
South East Europe Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative Glossary http://www.rai-see.org/glossary-.html.
Business Anti-Corruption Portal, Vocabulary http://www.business-anti-corruption.com/normal.asp?pageid=185.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Relevant links
—— Corruption and Poverty: A Review of Recent Literature.
http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00282/econ_corrupt.htm
—— Tanzania Prevention of Corruption Bureau: Examples of petty corruption.
http://www.tanzania.go.tz/pcb/corruption/petty.html
—— Transparency International: Africa Education Watch Project.
www.transparency.org/content/download/23457/349918/file/Africa_ Education_Watch_2007-2010.pdf
34. Political Contribution
Definition:
Any contribution, made in cash or in kind, to support a political cause. Examples include gifts of
property or services, advertising or promotional activities endorsing a political party and the purchase
of tickets to fundraising events.56
Example in practice
In Costa Rica, a political scandal linked former presidents Miguel Angel Rodríguez and José María
Figueres to the French company Alcatel, which had given them bribes and political contributions in
exchange for awarding the telecommunications giant the country’s cell phone network.
Relevant links
—— Global Organization of Parliamentarians against Corruption (GOPAC).
http://www.gopacnetwork.org/
—— Open Secrets.
http://www.opensecrets.org/lobbyists/
—— TI Policy Position: Standards on Political Funding and Favours.
http://www.transparency.org/publications/publications/policy_papers/ti_pp_pol_funding.
—— U4 Resource Centre : Political Corruption Cases.
http://www.u4.no/themes/political-corruption/cases.cfm
35. Political Corruption
Definition
Manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources and financing
by political decision makers, who abuse their position to sustain their power, status and wealth.57 See
corruption’, ‘grand corruption’ and ‘petty corruption’.
Example in practice
In 2000, Daniel Ortega and Arnoldo Aleman, the two leaders of Nicaragua’s principal opposition
parties, reached an informal pact to push through a constitutional change that enhanced their control
of government institutions and constitutional leverage, including life-long immunity from prosecution.
Relevant links
—— CMI Paper: Political Corruption-An Introduction to the Issues.
55 Transparency International Bangladesh, National Household Survey on Corruption 2007 http://www.tibangladesh.
org/research/HHSurvey07SubstSum180608.pdf.
56 Transparency International. Business Principles for Countering Bribery (Berlin, Germany: Transparency International 2003).
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/private_sector/business_principles.
57 Hodess, ‘Introduction’, in: Transparency International, Global Corruption Report 2004 - Political Corruption’ (Berlin: 2004).
I. Amundsen, ‘Political Corruption: An Introduction to the Issues’ (CMI Working Paper 1999:7)
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/.
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf.
http://www.cmi.no/publications/1999/wp/wp1999-7.pdf
—— Transparency International: Political Corruption.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/corruption_politics
—— Transparency International: Global Corruption Report 2004, Political Corruption.
http://www.transparency.org/publications/gcr/download_gcr/download_gcr_2004
—— U4 theme: Political Corruption.
http://www.u4.no/themes/political-corruption/main.cfm
36. Political Will
Definition
Demonstration and commitment by political leaders to address the challenges facing society or to fulfil
a political pledge, such as fighting corruption or increasing political participation, by pursuing the
appropriate policy responses, including wide-spread reforms.58
Example in practice
The British government has been criticised by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) for lacking the political will to prosecute foreign bribery following its decision to
abandon a corruption investigation into BAE Systems, the largest UK arms dealer, which allegedly had
paid hundreds of millions of pounds in full knowledge of British authorities to Saudi Arabia’s former
ambassador to the US.
Relevant links
—— The Helsinki Process: Mobilising Political Will.
http://www.cmi.fi/files/HP_report_HG.pdf
—— Singapore Corrupt Practice Investigation Bureau – Political Will.
http://app.cpib.gov.sg/newcpib/user/default.aspx?pgID=101
—— USAID: Political Will, Constituency Building, and Public Support in Rule of Law Programs.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAWJUSTINST/Resources/PoliticalWill.pdf
—— World Bank: Public Sphere – Political Will: People, Places, Deliberation.
https://publicsphere.worldbank.org/usertags/political—will
37. Private Sector
Definition
Any company, household and institution that is not controlled by the public sector and which is run for
private profit. Instances of private sector corruption are characterized by groups from this sector
serving as the key actors influencing the decisions and taking the actions that lead to abuses.59
Example in practice
In 2006, regional leaders attending the World Economic Forum on Africa expressed their support for
transparent, national-level institutions to ensure clear rules of the game and a stable business
environment that would attract and keep companies operating in their countries. Listed among the top
priority areas to tackle were corruption and crime.60
58 S. Kpundeh, ‘Political Will in Fighting Corruption’, in: S. Kpundeh and I. Hors, Corruption and Integrity Improvement Initiatives
in Developing Countries (UNDP/OECD: 1998).
59 UK Office for National Statistics http://www.ons.gov.uk/about-statistics/user-guidance/lm-guide/concepts/employers/jobs/puband-
priv/index.html
Wikipedia, private sector http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_sector.
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
60 IFC press release: “IFC Puts Commitments into Action in Africa”
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/media.nsf/content/Africa_Investment_Climate_Facility
Relevant links
—— Global Compact
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/
—— International Chamber of Commerce: Anti-Corruption.
http://www.iccwbo.org/policy/anticorruption/
—— Transparency International: Private Sector
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/private_sector
38. Procurement
Definition
A multi-step process of established procedures to acquire goods and services by any individual,
company or organization — from the initial needs assessment to the contract’s award and service
delivery.61
Example in practice
The city of Buenos Aires found a very wide dispersion in the prices paid for basic, identical products to
supply its hospital network, such as needles, syringes, intravenous solutions, x-ray film and sanitary
materials, raising suspicion that corruption had tainted the procurement process.62
Relevant links
—— Transparency International: Procurement Handbook.
http://www.transparency.org/publications/publications/other/procurement_handbook
—— U4 Theme: Corruption in Public Procurement.
http://www.u4.no/themes/procurement/main.cfm
—— UN Procurement Capacity Development Centre.
http://www.unpcdc.org/english/pcdc-home.aspx
39. Public sector
Definition
The government and its decentralized units — including the police, military, public roads and transit
authorities, primary schools and healthcare system — that use public funds and provide services
based on the motivation to improve citizens’ lives rather than to make a profit.63
Example in practice
Rwanda’s ministry of education has implemented a policy of free primary education for all of its
citizens, enacting a no-fee policy in which public school tuitions have been abolished as part of its
public sector reform.
Relevant links
—— International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board.
http://www.ifac.org/PublicSector/
—— UN: World Public Sector Report.
61 U4 Theme: Corruption in Public Procurement
http://www.u4.no/themes/procurement/main.cfm.
Transparency International, Procurement Handbook
http://www.transparency.org/publications/publications/other/procurement_handbook.
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf.
62 Brief, ‘The Impact of Information and Accountability on Hospital Procurement Corruption in Argentina and Bolivia’
http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/?3027=the-impact-of-information-and-accountability-on.
63 Wikipedia, public sector http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_sector.
InvestorWords, public sector http://www.investorwords.com/3947/public_sector.html.
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/.
http://www.unpan.org/dpepa_worldpareport.asp
—— World Bank: Public Sector Governance.
http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/index.cfm
—— World Bank: Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why?
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTOED/EXTPUBSECREF/0,,menuPK:4664077~pag
ePK:64829575~piPK:64829612~theSitePK:4663904,00.html
40. Revolving door
Definition
An individual who moves back and forth between public office and private companies, exploiting
his/her period of government service for the benefit of the companies they used to regulate.64
Example in practice
One member of Lockheed Martin’s Board of Directors earned his position shortly after retiring from the
United States government, where he served as Under-Secretary of Defense for Acquisition,
Technology, and Logistics. During his time in this government position, he approved the contract for
Lockheed Martin’s controversial F-22 fighter jet.65
Relevant links
—— Center for Responsive Politics.
http://www.opensecrets.org/revolving/index.php
—— Revolving Door Working Group 2005.
http://www.revolvingdoor.info/docs/matter-of-trust_final-full.pdf
41. Rule of Law
Definition:
Legal and political systems, structures and practices that condition a government’s actions to protect
citizens’ rights and liberties, maintain law and order, and encourage the effective functioning of the
country.66
Example in practice
Afghanistan has searched to re-establish the rule of law following the exit of the Taliban in 2001 from
government, focusing on rebuilding state and non-state institutions that promote the application of
public rules which are fair, independent and equally enforced.67
Relevant links
—— African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption.
http://www.africaunion.
org/Official_documents/Treaties_%20Conventions_%20Protocols/Convention%20on%20Comb
ating%20Corruption.pdf
—— American Bar Association: Rule of Law Initiative.
http://www.abanet.org/rol/programs/resource_anticorruption.html
64 Wikipedia, revolving doors http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolving_door.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
65 Revolving Door Working Group 2005, ‘A Matter of Trust: How the Revolving Door Undermines Trust in Public Confidence in
Government – And What we Can do About It’ http://www.revolvingdoor.info/docs/matter-of-trust_final-full.pdf.
66 Helen Yu and Alison Guernsey, “What is the Rule of Law”. Center for International Finance and Development. (Iowa City,
Iowa: University of Iowa, 2005). http://www.uiowa.edu/ifdebook/faq/Rule_of_Law.shtml
Rachel Kleinfeld Belton, “Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law: Implications for Practitioners”. Carnegie Paper No. 55
(Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for Peace, January 2005).
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/CP55.Belton.FINAL.pdf.
67 Leigh Toomey and J. Alexander Thier, “Bridging Modernity and Tradition: Rule of Law and Search for Justice in Afghanistan”.
USI Peace Briefing (Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace, October 2007).
http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2007/1031_afghanistan.html.
—— European Institute of Public Administration: Rule of Law.
http://www.eipa.eu/files/repository/eipascope/20070622102127_pniSCOPE2007-1_internet-7.pdf.
—— OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
http://www.oecd.org/document/34/0,3343,en_2649_34487_2068514_1_1_1_1,00.html.
—— UN Convention against Corruption.
http://www.unodc.org/pdf/corruption/publications_unodc_convention-e.pdf.
42. Solicitation
Definition
The act of a person asking, ordering or enticing someone else to commit bribery or another crime.68
Example in practice
A 2005 survey of 701 companies in the Philippines asked managers if they had solicited a bribe in the
past year. Findings showed that more than one-fifth of the respondents had done so when dealing
with government agencies, either to request a local government permit or license (36 percent), pay
income taxes (30 percent), petition for a national government permit or license (28 percent), or import
goods (21 percent).69
Relevant links
—— BIAC Program for Combating the Solicitation of Bribes.
http://www.10iacc.org/download/workshops/cs18f.pdf
—— OECD Guidelines for Multinational Companies.
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/56/36/1922428.pdf
—— TI Business Principles for Countering Bribery.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/private_sector/business_principles
43. State Capture
Definition
A situation where powerful individuals, institutions, companies or groups within or outside a country
use corruption to shape a nation’s policies, legal environment and economy to benefit their own
private interests. 70
Example in practice
Since the 1990s, multinational corporations have pressured and bribed key politicians in the Solomon
Islands to create a favourable operating environment for logging and to weaken national-level timber
management, successfully gaining advantages such as decreasing export taxes, postponing the
logging export ban and preventing moves to strengthen government oversight of foreign-controlled
68 ECD Guidelines for Multinational Companies
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/56/36/1922428.pdf.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
International Chamber of Commerce, Policy and Business Practices
http://www.iccwbo.org/policy/anticorruption/id13018/index.html.
69 Social Weather Stations, 2005 SWS Survey of Enterprises on Corruption: Solicitation Of Bribes
http://www.sws.org.ph/pr0500725.htm
70 Hellman and D. Kaufmann, ‘Confronting the Challenge of State Capture in Transition Economies’, Finance & Development,
vol. 38, no. 3 (2001).
D. Kaufmann, F. Recanatini, S. Biletsky, ‘Assessing Governance: Diagnostic Tools and Applied Methods for Capacity Building
and Action Learning’ (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002).
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
USAID, TATWEER Anti-Corruption Glossary http://www.tatweer-iraq.com/content/resources/detail/812.
operations.71
Relevant links
—— Global Witness
http://www.globalwitness.org/
—— World Bank: Development Outreach - State Capture: Who Represents the Poor?
http://www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/winter01/article.asp?id=100
—— World Bank: State Capture and Influence
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/EXTWBIGOVANTCOR/0,,contentMDK:20713499
~menuPK:1976979~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:1740530,00.html
44. Transparency
Definition
Characteristic of being clear, honest and open in the disclosure of information, rules, plans, processes
and actions. As a principle, this implies that public officials, civil servants, company managers and
board trustees have a duty to act visibly, predictably and understandably to promote participation and
accountability.72
Example in practice
In Romania, all high-level government officials must disclose on a public website their financial and
property holdings, as well as positions they hold in associations and businesses, any paid professional
activities, and their investments in companies.73
Relevant links
—— EITI: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.
http://eitransparency.org/
—— Open Society Justice Initiative.
http://www.justiceinitiative.org/
—— Right 2 Info.
http://right2info.org/
45. Whistle blowing
Definition
The sounding of an alarm by an employee, director, or external person, in an attempt to reveal neglect
or abuses within the activities of an organisation, government body or company (or one of its business
partners) that threaten public interest, its integrity and reputation.74
71 Peter Dauvergne, ‘WeakStates and the Environment in Indonesia and the Solomon Islands’, Resource Management in Asia
Pacific Working Paper No. 10. http://rspas.anu.edu.au/papers/rmap/Wpapers/rmap_wp10.pdf.
72 U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm.
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary.
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004). Wayne Visser, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl and Nick Tolhurst. “The A to Z of Corporate
Social Responsibility” (London, UK: Wiley, 2008).
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf.
73 Right2Info, Asset Declarations http://right2info.org/information-of-high-public-interest/asset-declarations.
74 U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
Example in practice
In 2006, advocate Jeanetha Brink blew the whistle on fraud occurring in the South African province of
Guateng. According to her claims, the local anti-corruption hot line was not investigating tip-offs and
derailing investigations of cases against senior government officials. As a result of her charges, she
was relieved of her duties and forced to resign. In 2008, a court declared her resignation was coerced
and she was awarded compensation.75
Relevant links
—— Governmental Accountability Project.
www.whistleblower.org
—— TIME Magazine, Persons of the Year 2002 (The Whistleblowers).
http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/personoftheyear/2002/poyintro.html
—— UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, Tool #33, Whistleblowers, p. 448.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
75 Global Integrity Report 2008. South Africa Scorecard. http://report.globalintegrity.org/South%20Africa/2008/scorecard/59.
 







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